The month of August (Latin: Augustus) is named after Augustus; until his time, it was called Sextilis (so named because it was the sixth month of the original Roman calendar and is the Latin word for six sexes). Commonly repeated traditions say that August has 31 days because Augustus wanted its month to be the length of Julius Caesar`s July, but this is an invention of the 13th century scholar John of Sacrobosco. Sextilis was actually 31 days old before it was renamed, and it was not chosen for its length (see Julian calendar). Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus` closest friend and most famous general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. He was appointed praetor and sent with his legions to help his brother Drusus in the western campaigns.[17] While Drusus concentrated his troops in Narbonne Gaul and along the German border, Tiberius fought the tribes of the Alps and Transalpine Gaul and conquered Rhaetia. In 15 BC. He discovered the sources of the Danube and shortly after the bend of the middle course. When Tiberius returned to Rome in 13 BC. He was appointed consul and at about the same time his son, Drusus Julius Caesar, was born. [19] After the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, Augustus allied with Caesar`s former lieutenant, Mark Antony, and his magister equitium (“master of the cavalry”), Marcus Lepidus, to form the Second Triumvirate of Rome. The second triumvirate did not last long. Around 40 BC, Antony began a memorable love affair with Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt. Soon after, Lepidus fell from power and Augustus made war on Antony and Cleopatra.

Augustus emerged victorious in 30 BC. Sextus Pompey, son of Pompey and still a renegade general after Julius Caesar`s victory over his father, had settled in Sicily and Sardinia in 39 BC. A.D. by virtue of an agreement with the second triumvirate. [88] Antony and Octavian were vying for an alliance with Pompey. Octavian succeeded in a temporary alliance in 40 BC. He married Scribonia, a sister or daughter of Pompey`s father-in-law, Lucius Scribonius Libo. Scribonia gave birth to Octavian`s only biological child, Julia, the same day he divorced to marry Livia Drusilla, just over a year after their wedding.

[87] Shortly thereafter Tiberius appeared as a lawyer in court, and it was probably at this time that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent east under Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. The Parthian Empire had the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC). (at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC) and Mark Antony (36 BC). [14] After a year of negotiations, Tiberius led a large force into Armenia, presumably to establish it as a Roman vassal state and end the threat it posed on the Romano-Parthian border. Augustus was able to reach a compromise in which norms were restored and Armenia remained a neutral territory between the two powers. [14] In 19 BC. The Senate granted Augustus a form of “consular imperium general,” which was probably the imperium consulare maius, like the proconsular powers he received in 23 BC. Like his authority as tribune, consular powers were another example of gaining power from positions he did not actually hold.

[189] In addition, Augustus was allowed to wear the consul`s insignia in public and before the senate,[179] as well as to sit in the symbolic chair between the two consuls and hold the faskes, an emblem of consular authority. [189] This seems to have reassured the population; Regardless of whether Augustus was consul or not, it was important that he appeared as a unit before the people and could exercise consular power if necessary. On March 6, 12 B.C. After the death of Lepidus, he also assumed the position of Pontifex Maximus, the high priest of the College of Popes, the most important position in Roman religion. [j] [k] On February 5, 2 BC, Augustus was also given the title of pater patriae or “father of the country.” [194] [195] Moreover, Augustus was credited with any subsequent Roman military victory after this period, since the majority of Roman armies were stationed in the imperial provinces commanded by Augustus through the legate, which were representatives of the princeps in the provinces. When a battle was fought in a senatorial province, Augustus` proconsular empire, Maius, allowed him to take command (or honor) any major military victory. This meant that Augustus was the only person who could receive a triumph, a tradition that began with Romulus, the first king of Rome and the first triumphant general.

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